Oct 12, 2015, 3:40 PM from Ancient Indians – Satya Samhita
The letters from ka to ma are called classified consonants or vargIya vyanjanAs.
Each varga or class ends with a nasal sound or anunAsika that is pronounced from the same area of the mouth as the other letters of that varga.
Each varga has two alpaprANAs and two mahAprANAs.
For example, in the kavarga we have,
ka kha and ga gha.
ka and ga being alpaprANAs or weak prANas must be prounced with less prANa or outgoing breath. kha and gha being mahAprANAs must be pronounced with a lot of prANa.
Where the great actors and singers of the past like S.V.Ranga Rao and Madhavapeddi Satyam were perfect in their proniunciation, it has now become fashionable to either eliminate the mahAprANAs or use them where they do not belong at all.
And those with foreign influences tend to borrow the madhyaprANAs from the English ‘t’ and ‘p’ and stick it into saMskRta.
At my present level of evolution, this distresses me. It is said that even the dEvAs who cannot bear the suffering of others and who exist to help us, flee from wrong pronounciation. It is also said that right pronounciation invokes the dEvAs.
In order to distinguish the mahAprANA kha from the conjunct consonant k+Ha,
I will use the capital H to signify the consonant Ha and the small h to signify the mahAprANa henceforth.
So I will write maHAprANa.
And du:kha: , sukha: .
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