Devata means luminary, the one who is bright. The root of the word is related to light. Diva is lamp, Diva is day, Divi is heaven. Even in English the word divine meaning Godly has its root in the word light. (Some others have translated Devata as angel or demi-god etc., but that does not apply to the Vedic Context, it was an attempt to reach the Vedas through a different religion which has the concept of angels).
In modern Indian languages and in modern sanskrit, Agni means fire, literally.
In Vedas and Upanishads, Agni is not only the fire that burns wood, but also the fire of the digestive juices, the fire of lightning, the fire in the sun and so forth. The nearest english word that strikes me at this point is energy.
Agnim Ile : (I) implore or praise Agni.
Puro-hitam: the benefactor of the Pura (a place where people live like a town or a city).
Yajnasya Devam: The luminary of the worship.
Rthvijam: The rthvik : the one who possesses the qualities of Rtham. Rtham can mean the physical law (physics) or the social law – rightness. The word rtham has often been loosely translated into English as truth. In modern Sanskrit Anrtham means falsehood. In modern english we have rythym and right, which are similar sounding words. In modern Indian languages Rtu – Ruthu – Rithu – means season. That which arrives rythmically. So Anrtham may have come from the sense that some thing that is not right, that is out of place, out of rythym and therefore false. All luminaries (as in celestial bodies) preserve the quality of timeliness or rythym. Fire has many associations with truth. Sita Devi took the Agni pariksha to show that she was true.
So let us translate rtvijam as the one who possesses the quality of rightness or trueness. (Interestingly note t-ruth sounds like ruth and untruth sounds like anruth).
Hotaram: the one who goes, carries or transports, pours offering.
Agnihotram as understood today: “A person, who wishes to perform Agnihotram and other Srouta rites must first acquire the sacrificial fire. The rituals starting from Agnihotram should be performed with oblations to the three distinct altars having different fires namely, the Garhapatya, Aahavaniya and the Dakshina. The acquisition of these fires and instituting them in one’s house are done through a ritual called Adhana (Agnyadhana, Agnyadheya), during initiation.” from http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/fr/2002/09/13/stories/2002091301040600.htm
Ratna Dhatamam : I was stuck on this phrase for a long time. Rathna in modern sanskrit is an precious gem and Dhata is the one who gives. So this can be transalated in one way as ‘the bestower of gems’. Is there a deeper meaning? Rathna can also mean the best in a category (eg Bharata Rathna) and Dhata is a name of one of the Adityas.
Possible Translations of this sentence:
- I praise the luminary of all worship, the transporter, the lawful, ( the truthful, the right) the Energy that bestows the precious gems.
- I worship that luminary, the moving flame, who is just and is the bestower of what is precious.
- I contemplate that luminary, mobile energy, who conforms to the laws of physics, who beneficial to the human settlement and who is the giver of what is precious.
Agnih Purvebhih Rishibhih Idyah
Agnih Purvebhih Rishibhih Idyah : Agni was contemplated even by the Rishis of the past.
Nutanaih Uta: And by the new rishis.
Eha : desiring (coming near?)
Devam : Luminaries, Devas
Vakshati : Strengthens, illuminates
He, of his desire, illuminates the luminaries.
Agnina Rayim Asnavat Posham Eva Dive Dive
Agnina: By Agni.
Rayim : Water, something that flows. (Vedic Synonyms for Vacha and Udaka)
Asnavat : is pervaded.
Posham : To nourish, thrive, prosper.
Eva : Only (emphasis)
Dive Dive : (in) Day (Learning Vedic Sanskrit : Kasyapa’s Nighantu – Yaska Niruktha : 3)
In the day, water is pervaded by Agni (energy), to nourish (it) only.
I give the vedic sanskrit words with modern english meanings in brackets so we can see how the words have changed in meaning.Synonyms for ahna (day) : dyuh, bhAnu (sun), ghrNA (anger), divedive (daily)
Yasasa : In fame
Virou: In valour
Uttamam : The best
Agne yam yagnyam adhvaram visvatah paribhurasi
Agne : In Agni
yam yagnyam: that worship,
adhvaram : non-injuring, worship called adhvara, sky, air
Visvatah : Viswa – universe, everything, from all sides
Paribhurasi: paribhuh asi : is pervaded or enclosed.
Sa : that
Id : certainly
Deveshu : among the luminaries
Gacchati : goes.
That certainly goes to the Devas.
Agnih Hota Kavi Kratuh
Kavi : means one who is gifted with insight, enlightened, sage, seer, thinker, wise man, poet.
Kratu : means power and might. (Indra is frequently described as SataKratu. This is interpreted by some to mean that he performed 100 Kratus (yajnas). Prof P.L. Bhargava says that this means that he is 100 times as mighty.)
Agnih means energy.
Hota means the carrier, the mobile one
Satyah : Truth, existence, an attribute of Sat, that which is.
Citrasravah : Chitra – wonderful, strange, coloured, bright or Chitra star. Sravah – ear, fame, renown.
Sravana is also the name of the month and the name of the nakshatram between Uttarashada and Dhanishta.
Tamah : Darkness, Inertness, Inertia
Devah: A luminary
Devebhih Aagamat: Comes Among the Devas, luminaries.
Yat Angat aas’ushe tvam Agne bhadram karishyasi Tavet tat satyam angirah
Agne = = He! Agne = O Energy! (Sambodhana Prathama Vibhakthi)
Tvam Bhadram Karishyasi = You will do good
yat etat Angirah – if this son
Satyam = Truly, Aasushe – strives
Tava Angat = This division, mandala of yours
Oh Agni! You will protect, that (person) who strives for this anga (division or part of the Vedas). That person is truly your son (Angira).
Upa tvagne divedive doshavasthar dhiya vayam namo bharanta emasi
Upa = near, to
Tu – however, but
emasi = ema + asi
ema = way, course asi = (you) are.
Agne = O Energy!
O Energy! Come Near! This way
Diva = Day, sky, heaven Dive – in the day, Dive Dive = everyday
dhi = mind, dhiya = by mind
vayam = we
namo = namah = salutations
Bhru, Bhara = bear, support, maintain
ema = way, course asi = (you) are.
Doshavastah = dosha + avastah = flaw, darkness + state
We, who are in a state of darkness, bear salutations to you in our mind.
O Energy! Come Near! Be (In This) way! We, who are in a state of darkness, bear salutations to you with our mind.
Rajantham Adhvaranam Gopamrutasya Didivim Vardhamanam Sve Dame |Sah nah pita sunave Agne Supayanah Bhava sachasvah nah svastaye
Rajantham = of those that are radiant, Adhvaranam = non-injuring yajnas, Gopamrutasya = Gopa + amrutasya = Krishna/cowherd/gaurdian + of the nectar, DiDivim = heaven, shining, bright, name brhaspati (jupiter), boiled rice, food Vardhamanam = of those that flourish, prosper or grow, Sve Dame = in control/home of self
Of the Radiant Yajnas that are non-injuring, which gaurd the nectar of immortality, which increase the brightness of the heavens,with your control/in our home.
Agne = O Energy, Bhava = be, nah = us, Sah = he, pita sunave = as a father to a son,
Supayanah = Supa + Ayanah = A lentil soup with roots (like sambar) + coming, arrival,
sacasvah nah= us (who are) friends/connected/ together, svastaye = in/for a good state
Oh Energy, Be as a father to a son, and arrive in this lentil-root soup, for the welfare of of us friends.
Quotes below from : Karthikeya (Skanda, Kumara), Rudra, Agni and Gold Daana
“First, Vasishtha gave this account of events based on Prajapathi, “Gold is of the essence of Agni and Soma. Churning the entire universe, a mass of energy was found. That energy is gold. And therefore held in high regard by the Devas and Gandharvas and Uragas and Rakshasas, Manavas and Pisachas. All of these jathis convert gold into crowns, armlets etc and wear it on their person. Of all kinds of Dakshina, gold is the best. Agni is all the deities in one, and gold has Agni for its essence.””
“A part of the essence of Rudra became the blazing Agni and grew and grew.”
“They searched for Agni everywhere but could not find him, as he had merged his self into his self. A frog let them know, that Agni was hiding in the deep in the waters. But the Devas and others could not find Agni in the waters. Then they were told by an elephant that agni was hiding in an Aswattha tree, but they could not find him there. In the meantime Agni entered a Sami tree and this time he was pointed out by a parrot. The Devas made Agni come out of the sacred Sami wood, henceforth used for making ritual fires.”
“From that day, Agni was called Hiranyaretas.”
“It was in this way that gold came into existence as the offspring of the deity of blazing flames. Hence it is that gold came to be looked upon as the foremost of all things and the ornament of the very gods. It was from this circumstance that gold came to be called by the name of Jatarupam. It is the foremost of all costly things, and among ornaments also it is the foremost. The cleanser among all cleansing things, it is the most auspicious of all auspicious objects. Gold is truly the illustrious Agni. the Lord of all things, and the foremost of all Prajapatis. The most sacred of all sacred things is gold, Verily, gold is said to have for its essence Agni and Soma.”
Agni Nakshatram :
Kruthika Nakshatram and the Sun : Kruthika Karte :
The fortnight called Kruthika Karthe occurs in the month of May. The sun passes by every nakshatra once a year and spends on an average one fortnight near any given nakshatram. That fortnight is called the kArte of that nakshatram. This is the fortnight when the sun and kruthika nakshatram are in the same line of sight, and the sun passes in front of this nakshatram.
Kruthika Karthe Celebrations in Tamil Nadu:
Tamilians, who follow the solar calendar, celebrate Kruthika Karthe, under the name Agni Nakshatram Festival. It is celebrated in honour of Siva’s son Karthikeya also revered as Murugan, Palani, Subrahmanya, Kumaraswamy among many other names.
“Agni Nakshatram is a 14-day period in May, the hottest part of the year. It is the season when devout persons go round the hill in the Giri Veedi as much out of faith as for reasons of health, in the early morning (1 am. to 10 a.m.) and evening (4 to 10 pm) in large numbers. Just now, the kadamba trees (Eugenia Racemosa), favourite flora of Murugan, are in full bloom all around the hill shedding their fragrance and conveying healing properties to all the walkers. At Kodumudi (Periyar District), ardent devotees by the thousands collect Cauvery water in scorching sun and bring it in kavadis for abhishekam of the deity and the sanctum sanctorum at the hill is a large pool of water! It is so cool that one forgets the summer-heat. The water bearers are accompanied by artistes in a variety of folk-music and folkdance items. Their procession by itself is colorful and difficult to forget. On the concluding day, the festival deity of the Periyanâyaki Temple marches to the Adivaram and there is a majestic procession round Giri Veedi.” Kruthika nakshatra (constellation) constitutes last padam of Mesha (Aries) and the first 3 padams of Vrishabha (Taurus). ( kruthika: Location = Alcyone, Celaeno, Electra, Taygete, Maia, & Asterope:(Pleiades) Eta, 16, 17, 19, 20, & 21 Tauri)